How To Choose Arbitrage Software For Forex Trading

Vast Triumph | ShowMe

Vast Triumph | ShowMe

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COSS exchange is ready to resume operations. Please read the following announcement carefully.


https://preview.redd.it/afpkritv1fk41.png?width=3556&format=png&auto=webp&s=9296f8b63636c34729c10d8575a37dcd65e76a6f
https://medium.com/coss-official/update-coss-exchange-relaunch-roadmap-18a5ff7549a3/
Hello everyone.
COSS exchange is ready to resume operations shortly after almost 8 weeks of downtime.
In this update, we discuss the following:

The Downtime

COSS exchange was taken offline on January 7th 2020 with immediate notice to all users. The plan was to begin migration to a white label platform after proceeding with account-level snapshots.
The migration was halted mid-way as COSS entered and finalised acquisition negotiations, followed by audits of the existing technology, user data and wallets.
With the audits completed, the new management decided to do away with the old exchange platform and introduce a much more advanced engine for its users.
This is the platform which goes online this week with many added features including derivatives with up to 100x leverage, as well as an Exchange Swap Engine for instant conversions.

New Management

We apologise for the downtime — unconditionally.
The decision to shut down the exchange was not in our control and we, unfortunately, were handed over a shut exchange. We have done our best to re-enable the exchange for all users quickly and assure you that such missteps will be avoided at all costs in the future.
The new COSS is a group of investors, professional traders, and financial technology specialists. Who strongly believes in the original vision of COSS — a one-stop platform for modern digital assets whose success is dependent on and shared with all its users — a unique approach to decentralised finance.
The idea is in line with the original concept of creating a shared ‘digital economy’ instead of mirroring a system where the traditional institutional lenders and service providers benefit while the people pay fees to use and access their own assets.
The investment group has appointed a board of directors and is currently assessing nominations for the role of CEO.
The board will leave the day-to-day operations to the CEO and their team with a clear mandate — to restore and build COSS the brand for success.
Rune and the previous technology, operations and marketing teams will no longer be involved with COSS. We appreciate their work in the past and wish them all the best for future endeavours.
Satyarth will continue to remain on board with us and support the community management, marketing and PR team.

New Technology Partner

The new management has carefully evaluated several options to ensure COSS has a stable, scalable and continuously improving technology platform.
We have partnered with XHUB — a financial and trading technology company.
The XHUB team has vast experience in working with brokers, hedge funds, and proprietary trading firms.
XHUB maintains one of the largest cryptocurrency liquidity and order routing systems in the industry, and a trading platform which has been exclusively and extensively used in-house by large trading firms.
The XHUB technology team will extend its support to COSS API consumers and encourage them to keep building trading applications for the community. Consumers will have access to extensive historical and real-time market data which will allow them to create advanced strategies supported by back-testing.

Roadmap

A general roadmap of the board’s vision for the immediate future is included below. We remain focused on ensuring that COSS provides a reliable trading platform for retail and professional traders alike.

Q1–2020

Exchange Relaunch
  1. COSS will relaunch the exchange platform and enable full trading on supported pairs
  2. Current COSS account holders will be sent new login credentials via email and an invitation to begin trading
  3. COS holders will be allocated 100% of the fees generated by the exchange until the FSA dashboard is completed and launched
  4. Balance transfers from previous exchange platform are initiated by the account login. This begins the final-phase of the account audit.
  5. Withdrawal of audited portfolios / balances will be available within 48 hrs of the account portfolio transfer
API Release
  1. REST and Websocket access to market data
  2. REST access to account and trade endpoints
  3. Websocket access to account end points
  4. FIX Engine quote and trade functional release
Mobile Trading App (iOS, Android)
  1. Beta release of the full-featured mobile app
  2. Full public launch of the trading app
Listing Policy Release
  1. Compliant with all regulatory requirements
API Community Development
  1. GitHub community to showcase public projects
  2. Technical support
  3. Budget allocated for development competitions

Q2–2020

Mobile Wallet App (v2) (iOS, Android)
  1. Release of the full-featured wallet/payment and proximity peer to peer payment app
Metaquotes MT5
  1. Release full scale derivative trading platform for Windows, iOS and Android
  2. Enabling:
Regulatory Licensing
  1. Leverage trading will be reduced as the final step for licensing
Vendor and Payments API
  1. Release of web and mobile payment processing for merchants
Roadmap will be updated in the first and third quarter every year, and will cover plans for that period.
Relaunch FAQ
The exchange will be operational on 4th March, 2020.
To adhere to existing anti-money laundering, counter-terrorism financing and know your customer regulations, existing users will need to complete level-1 KYC. This can be done with a single government-issued photo identity document.
Final phase account audit clearance is subject to KYC approval.
COS token trading will be available on the COS_USD pair. More pairs will be added as trading activity improves.
Maker and taker fees will be set at 0.05% and 0.1% respectively.
Trading fee discount and negative maker fees will be discontinued.
An updated COS holding based fee tier system may be introduced in the future.
The Fee Split Allocation (FSA) dashboard is under development. However, FSA will be tracked and accrue from day one. COS held in private wallets will need to be re-identified and linked to your new user accounts once the dashboard is launched.
We will initiate a delisting procedure for some assets. A complete list of pairs and the withdrawal process for the same will be released at a later date.
Crypto deposits will remain at 0 fees. A fee schedule for crypto withdrawals will be published on the website.
Fiat deposits will be available via Epay and transfers from Epay wallet to COSS will be at 0 fees.
Deposits through credit and debit cards will be introduced at 4% fees.
We will add more fiat options including withdrawals in the coming weeks.
Thank you for all your support and feedback.
We are expecting a rush to access COSS accounts and will complete verification for all applicants as quickly as possible. We apologise for any unforeseen delays during the process. You can reach us on [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) in case you require any further assistance.
submitted by satyarthm to CossIO [link] [comments]

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submitted by Philemond22 to u/Philemond22 [link] [comments]

Looking back 18 months.

I was going through old emails today and came across this one I sent out to family on January 4, 2018. It was a reflection on the 2017 crypto bull market and where I saw it heading, as well as some general advice on crypto, investment, and being safe about how you handle yourself in cryptoland.
I feel that we are on the cusp of a new bull market right now, so I thought that I would put this out for at least a few people to see *before* the next bull run, not after. While the details have changed, I don't see a thing in this email that I fundamentally wouldn't say again, although I'd also probably insist that people get a Yubikey and use that for all 2FA where it is supported.
Happy reading, and sorry for some of the formatting weirdness -- I cleaned it up pretty well from the original email formatting, but I love lists and indents and Reddit has limitations... :-/
Also, don't laught at my token picks from January 2018! It was a long time ago and (luckliy) I took my own advice about moving a bunch into USD shortly after I sent this. I didn't hit the top, and I came back in too early in the summer of 2018, but I got lucky in many respects.
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Jan-4, 2018
Hey all!
I woke up this morning to ETH at a solid $1000 and decided to put some thoughts together on what I think crypto has done and what I think it will do. *******, if you could share this to your kids I’d appreciate it -- I don’t have e-mail addresses, and it’s a bit unwieldy for FB Messenger… Hopefully they’ll at least find it thought-provoking. If not, they can use it as further evidence that I’m a nutjob. 😉
Some history before I head into the future.
I first mined some BTC in 2011 or 2012 (Can’t remember exactly, but it was around the Christmas holidays when I started because I had time off from work to get it set up and running.) I kept it up through the start of summer in 2012, but stopped because it made my PC run hot and as it was no longer winter, ********** didn’t appreciate the sound of the fans blowing that hot air into the room any more. I’ve always said that the first BTC I mined was at $1, but looking back at it now, that’s not true – It was around $2. Here’s a link to BTC price history.
In the summer of 2013 I got a new PC and moved my programs and files over before scrapping the old one. I hadn’t touched my BTC mining folder for a year then, and I didn’t even think about salvaging those wallet files. They are now gone forever, including the 9-10BTC that were in them. While I can intellectually justify the loss, it was sloppy and underlines a key thing about cryptocurrency that I believe will limit its widespread adoption by the general public until it is addressed and solved: In cryptoland, you are your own bank, and if you lose your password or account number, there is no person or organization that can help you reset it so that you can get access back. Your money is gone forever.
On April 12, 2014 I bought my first BTC through Coinbase. BTC had spiked to $1000 and been in the news, at least in Japan. This made me remember my old wallet and freak out for a couple of months trying to find it and reclaim the coins. I then FOMO’d (Fear Of Missing Out”) and bought $100 worth of BTC. I was actually very lucky in my timing and bought at around $430. Even so, except for a brief 50% swing up almost immediately afterwards that made me check prices 5 times a day, BTC fell below my purchase price by the end of September and I didn’t get back to even until the end of 2015.
In May 2015 I bought my first ETH at around $1. I sent some guy on bitcointalk ~$100 worth of BTC and he sent me 100 ETH – all on trust because the amounts were small and this was a small group of people. BTC was down in the $250 range at that point, so I had lost 30-40% of my initial investment. This was of the $100 invested, so not that much in real terms, but huge in percentages. It also meant that I had to buy another $100 of BTC on Coinbase to send to this guy. A few months after I purchased my ETH, BTC had doubled and ETH had gone down to $0.50, halving the value of my ETH holdings. I was even on the first BTC purchase finally, but was now down 50% on the ETH I had bought.
The good news was that this made me start to look at things more seriously. Where I had skimmed white papers and gotten a superficial understanding of the technology before FOMO’ing, I started to act as an investor, not a speculator. Let me define how I see those two different types of activity:
So what has been my experience as an investor? After sitting out the rest of 2015 because I needed to understand the market better, I bought into ETH quite heavily, with my initial big purchases being in March-April of 2016. Those purchases were in the $11-$14 range. ETH, of course, dropped immediately to under $10, then came back and bounced around my purchase range for a while until December of 2016, when I purchased a lot more at around $8.
I also purchased my first ICO in August of 2016, HEAT. I bought 25ETH worth. Those tokens are now worth about half of their ICO price, so about 12.5ETH or $12500 instead of the $25000 they would be worth if I had just kept ETH. There are some other things with HEAT that mean I’ve done quite a bit better than those numbers would suggest, but the fact is that the single best thing I could have done is to hold ETH and not spend the effort/time/cost of working with HEAT. That holds true for about every top-25 token on the market when compared to ETH. It certainly holds true for the many, many tokens I tried to trade in Q1-Q2 of 2017. In almost every single case I would have done better and slept better had I just held ETH instead of trying to be smarter than Mr. Market.
But, I made money on all of them except one because the crypto market went up more in USD terms than any individual coin went down in ETH or BTC terms. This underlines something that I read somewhere and that I take to heart: A rising market makes everyone seem like a genius. A monkey throwing darts at a list of the top 100 cryptocurrencies last year would have doubled his money. Here’s a chart from September that shows 2017 year-to-date returns for the top 10 cryptocurrencies, and all of them went up a *lot* more between then and December. A monkey throwing darts at this list there would have quintupled his money.
When evaluating performance, then, you have to beat the monkey, and preferably you should try to beat a Wall Street monkey. I couldn’t, so I stopped trying around July 2017. My benchmark was the BLX, a DAA (Digital Asset Array – think fund like a Fidelity fund) created by ICONOMI. I wasn’t even close to beating the BLX returns, so I did several things.
  1. I went from holding about 25 different tokens to holding 10 now. More on that in a bit.
  2. I used those funds to buy ETH and BLX. ETH has done crazy-good since then and BLX has beaten BTC handily, although it hasn’t done as well as ETH.
  3. I used some of those funds to set up an arbitrage operation.
The arbitrage operation is why I kept the 11 tokens that I have now. All but a couple are used in an ETH/token pair for arbitrage, and each one of them except for one special case is part of BLX. Why did I do that? I did that because ICONOMI did a better job of picking long-term holds than I did, and in arbitrage the only speculative thing you must do is pick the pairs to trade. My pairs are (No particular order):
I also hold PLU, PLBT, and ART. These two are multi-year holds for me. I have not purchased BTC once since my initial $200, except for a few cases where BTC was the only way to go to/from an altcoin that didn’t trade against ETH yet. Right now I hold about the same 0.3BTC that I held after my first $100 purchase, so I don’t really count it.
Looking forward to this year, I am positioning myself as follows:
Looking at my notes, I have two other things that I wanted to work into this email that I didn’t get to, so here they are:
  1. Just like with free apps and other software, if you are getting something of value and you didn’t pay anything for it, you need to ask why this is. With apps, the phrase is “If you didn’t pay for the product, you are the product”, and this works for things such as pump groups, tips, and even technical analysis. Here’s how I see it.
    1. People don’t give tips on stocks or crypto that they don’t already own that stock or token. Why would they, since if they convince anyone to buy it, the price only goes up as a result, making it more expensive for them to buy in? Sure, you will have friends and family that may do this, but people in a crypto club, your local cryptocurrency meetup, or online are generally not your friends. They are there to make money, and if they can get you to help them make money, they will do it. Pump groups are the worst of these, and no matter how enticing it may look, stay as far away as possible from these scams. I even go so far as to report them when I see them advertise on FB or Twitter, because they are violating the terms of use.
    2. Technical analysis (TA) is something that has been argued about for longer than I’ve been alive, but I think that it falls into the same boat. In short, TA argues that there are patterns in trading that can be read and acted upon to signal when one must buy or sell. It has been used forever in the stock and foreign exchange markets, and people use it in crypto as well. Let’s break down these assumptions a bit.
i. First, if crypto were like the stock or forex markets we’d all be happy with 5-7% gains per year rather than easily seeing that in a day. For TA to work the same way in crypto as it does in stocks and foreign exchange, the signals would have to be *much* stronger and faster-reacting than they work in the traditional market, but people use them in exactly the same way.
ii. Another area where crypto is very different than the stock and forex markets centers around market efficiency theory. This theory says that markets are efficient and that the price reflects all the available information at any given time. This is why gold in New York is similar in price to gold in London or Shanghai, and why arbitrage margins are easily <0.1% in those markets compared to cryptoland where I can easily get 10x that. Crypto simply has too much speculation and not enough professional traders in it yet to operate as an efficient market. That fundamentally changes the way that the market behaves and should make any TA patterns from traditional markets irrelevant in crypto.
iii. There are services, both free and paid that claim to put out signals based on TA for when one should buy and sell. If you think for even a second that they are not front-running (Placing orders ahead of yours to profit.) you and the other people using the service, you’re naïve.
iv. Likewise, if you don’t think that there are people that have but together computerized systems to get ahead of people doing manual TA, you’re naïve. The guys that I have programming my arbitrage bots have offered to build me a TA bot and set up a service to sell signals once our position is taken. I said no, but I am sure that they will do it themselves or sell that to someone else. Basically they look at TA as a tip machine where when a certain pattern is seen, people act on that “tip”. They use software to see that “tip” faster and take a position on it so that when slower participants come in they either have to sell lower or buy higher than the TA bot did. Remember, if you are getting a tip for free, you’re the product. In TA I see a system when people are all acting on free preset “tips” and getting played by the more sophisticated market participants. Again, you have to beat that Wall Street monkey.
  1. If you still don’t agree that TA is bogus, think about it this way: If TA was real, Wall Street would have figured it out decades ago and we would have TA funds that would be beating the market. We don’t.
  2. If you still don’t agree that TA is bogus and that its real and well, proven, then you must think that all smart traders use them. Now follow that logic forward and think about what would happen if every smart trader pushing big money followed TA. The signals would only last for a split second and would then be overwhelmed by people acting on them, making them impossible to leverage. This is essentially what the efficient market theory postulates for all information, including TA.
OK, the one last item. Read this weekly newsletter – You can sign up at the bottom. It is free, so they’re selling something, right? 😉 From what I can tell, though, Evan is a straight-up guy who posts links and almost zero editorial comments.
Happy 2018.
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Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

This article is taken from the Wall Street Journal written about nine months ago and sits behind a a paywall, so I decided to copy and paste it here. This article explains Trump's policies toward global trade and what has actually happened so far. I think the article does a decent job of explaining the Trade War. While alot has happenedsince the article was written, I still think its relevant.
However, what is lacking in the article, like many articles on the trade war, is it doesn't really explain the history of US trade policy, the laws that the US administration is using to place tariffs on China and the official justification for the US President in enacting tariffs against China. In my analysis I will cover those points.

SUMMARY

When Trump entered the White House people feared he would dismantle the global system the US and its allies had built over the last 75 years, but he hasn't. He has realign into two systems. One between the US and its allies which looks similar to the one built since the 1980s with a few of quota and tariffs. As the article points out
Today, Korus and Nafta have been replaced by updated agreements(one not yet ratified) that look much like the originals. South Korea accepted quotas on steel. Mexico and Canada agreed to higher wages, North American content requirements and quotas for autos. Furthermore, the article points out Douglas Irwin, an economist and trade historian at Dartmouth College, calls these results the “status quo with Trumpian tweaks: a little more managed trade sprinkled about for favored industries. It’s not good, but it’s not the destruction of the system.” Mr. Trump’s actions so far affect only 12% of U.S. imports, according to Chad Bown of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. In 1984, 21% of imports were covered by similar restraints, many imposed by Mr. Reagan, such as on cars, steel, motorcycles and clothing. Protectionist instincts go so far in the US, there are strong lobby groups for both protectionist and freetrade in the US.
The second reflects a emerging rivalry between the US and China. Undo some of the integration that followed China accession to the WTO. Two questions 1) How far is the US willing to decouple with China 2) Can it persuade allies to join.
The second is going to be difficult because China's economic ties are greater than they were between the Soviets, and China isn't waging an ideological struggle. Trump lacks Reagan commitment to alliance and free trade. The status quo with China is crumbling Dan Sullivan, a Republican senator from Alaska, personifies these broader forces reshaping the U.S. approach to the world. When Mr. Xi visited the U.S. in 2015, Mr. Sullivan urged his colleagues to pay more attention to China’s rise. On the Senate floor, he quoted the political scientist Graham Allison: “War between the U.S. and China is more likely than recognized at the moment.” Last spring, Mr. Sullivan went to China and met officials including Vice President Wang Qishan. They seemed to think tensions with the U.S. will fade after Mr. Trump leaves the scene, Mr. Sullivan recalled. “I just said, ‘You are completely misreading this.’” The mistrust, he told them, is bipartisan, and will outlast Mr. Trump. both Bush II and Obama tried to change dialogue and engagement, but by the end of his term, Obama was questioning the approach. Trump has declared engagement. “We don’t like it when our allies steal our ideas either, but it’s a much less dangerous situation,” said Derek Scissors, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute whose views align with the administration’s more hawkish officials. “We’re not worried about the war-fighting capability of Japan and Korea because they’re our friends.”
The article also points out unlike George Kennan in 1946 who made a case for containing the Soviet Union, the US hasn't explicitly made a case for containing the Soviets, Trump's administration hasn't, because as the the article explains its divided Michael Pillsbury a Hudson Institute scholar close to the Trump team, see 3 scenarios
Pillsbury thinks the third is most likely to happen, even though the administration hasn't said that it has adopted that policy. The US is stepping efforts to draw in other trading partners. The US, EU and Japan have launched a WTO effort to crack down on domestic subsidies and technology transfers requirement. US and Domestic concerns with prompted some countries to restrict Huawei. The US is also seeking to walloff China from other trade deals. However, there are risk with this strategy

ARTICLE

Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

INTRODUCTION

My main criticism of this article is it tries like the vast majority of articles to fit US trade actions in the larger context of US geopolitical strategy. Even the author isn't certain "The first goes to the heart of Mr. Trump’s goal. If his aim is to hold back China’s advance, economists predict he will fail.". If you try to treat the trade "war" and US geopolitical strategy toward China as one, you will find yourself quickly frustrated and confused. If you treat them separately with their different set of stakeholders and histories, were they intersect with regards to China, but diverge. During the Cold War, trade policy toward the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc was subordinated to geopolitical concerns. For Trump, the trade issues are more important than geopolitical strategy. His protectionist trade rhetoric has been fairly consistent since 1980s. In his administration, the top cabinet members holding economic portfolios, those of Commerce, Treasury and US Trade Representative are the same people he picked when he first took office. The Director of the Economic Council has changed hands once, its role isn't as important as the National Security Advisor. While State, Defense, CIA, Homeland Security, UN Ambassador, National Security Advisor have changed hands at least once. Only the Director of National Intelligence hasn't changed.
International Trade makes up 1/4 of the US economy, and like national security its primarily the responsibility of the Federal government. States in the US don't implement their own tariffs. If you add the impact of Treasury policy and how it relates to capital flows in and out of the US, the amounts easily exceed the size of the US economy. Furthermore, because of US Dollar role as the reserve currency and US control of over global system the impact of Treasury are global. Trade policy and investment flows runs through two federal departments Commerce and Treasury and for trade also USTR. Defense spending makes up 3.3% of GDP, and if you add in related homeland security its at most 4%. Why would anyone assume that these two realms be integrated let alone trade policy subordinate to whims of a national security bureaucracy in most instances? With North Korea or Iran, trade and investment subordinate themselves to national security, because to Treasury and Commerce bureaucrats and their affiliated interest groups, Iran and the DPRK are well, economic midgets, but China is a different matter.
The analysis will be divided into four sections. The first will be to provide a brief overview of US trade policy since 1914. The second section will discuss why the US is going after China on trade issues, and why the US has resorted using a bilateral approach as opposed to going through the WTO. The third section we will talk about how relations with China is hashed out in the US.
The reason why I submitted this article, because there aren't many post trying to explain US-China Trade War from a trade perspective. Here is a post titled "What is the Reasons for America's Trade War with China, and not one person mentioned Article 301 or China's WTO Commitments. You get numerous post saying that Huawei is at heart of the trade war. Its fine, but if you don't know what was inside the USTR Investigative report that lead to the tariffs. its like skipping dinner and only having dessert When the US President, Donald J Trump, says he wants to negotiate a better trade deal with other countries, and has been going on about for the last 35 years, longer than many of you have been alive, why do people think that the key issues with China aren't primarily about trade at the moment.

OVERVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE ORIENTATION

Before 1940s, the US could be categorized as a free market protectionist economy. For many this may seem like oxymoron, how can an economy be free market and protectionist? In 1913, government spending made up about 7.5% of US GDP, in the UK it was 13%, and for Germany 18% (Public Spending in the 20th Century A Global Perspective: Ludger Schuknecht and Vito Tanzi - 2000). UK had virtual zero tariffs, while for manufactured goods in France it was 20%, 13% Germany, 9% Belgium and 4% Netherlands. For raw materials and agricultural products, it was almost zero. In contrast, for the likes of United States, Russia and Japan it was 44%, 84% and 30% respectively. Even though in 1900 United States was an economic powerhouse along with Germany, manufactured exports only made up 30% of exports, and the US government saw tariffs as exclusively a domestic policy matter and didn't see tariffs as something to be negotiated with other nations. The US didn't have the large constituency to push the government for lower tariffs abroad for their exports like in Britain in the 1830-40s (Reluctant Partners: A History of Multilateral Trade Cooperation, 1850-2000).
The Underwood Tariffs Act of 1913 which legislated the income tax, dropped the tariffs to 1850 levels levels.Until 16th amendment was ratified in 1913 making income tax legal, all US federal revenue came from excise and tariffs. In contrast before 1914, about 50% of UK revenue came from income taxes. The reason for US reluctance to introduced income tax was ideological and the United State's relative weak government compared to those in Europe. After the First World War, the US introduced the Emergency Tariff Act of 1921, than the Fordney–McCumber Tariff of 1922 followed by a Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930. Contrary to popular opinion, the Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930 had a small negative impact on the economy, since imports and exports played a small part of the US economy, and the tariffs were lower than the average that existed from 1850-1914.
Immediately after the Second World War, when the US economy was the only industrialized economy left standing, the economic focus was on rehabilitation and monetary stability. There was no grandiose and ideological design. Bretton Woods system linked the US dollar to gold to create monetary stability, and to avoid competitive devaluation and tariffs that plagued the world economy after Britain took itself off the gold in 1931. The US$ was the natural choice, because in 1944 2/3 of the world's gold was in the US. One reason why the Marshall Plan was created was to alleviate the chronic deficits Europeans countries had with the US between 1945-50. It was to rebuild their economies so they could start exports good to the US. Even before it was full implemented in 1959, it was already facing problems, the trade surpluses that the US was running in the 1940s, turned to deficits as European and Japanese economies recovered. By 1959, Federal Reserves foreign liabilities had already exceeded its gold reserves. There were fears of a run on the US gold supply and arbitrage. A secondary policy of the Bretton woods system was curbs on capital outflows to reduce speculation on currency pegs, and this had a negative impact on foreign investment until it was abandoned in 1971. It wasn't until the 1980s, where foreign investment recovered to levels prior to 1914. Factoring out the big spike in global oil prices as a result of the OPEC cartel, it most likely wasn't until the mid-1990s that exports as a % of GDP had reached 1914 levels.
Until the 1980s, the US record regarding free trade and markets was mediocre. The impetus to remove trade barriers in Europe after the Second World War was driven by the Europeans themselves. The EEC already had a custom union in 1968, Canada and the US have yet to even discuss implementing one. Even with Canada it took the US over 50 years to get a Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA was inspired by the success of the EEC. NAFTA was very much an elite driven project. If the Americans put the NAFTA to a referendum like the British did with the EEC in the seventies, it most likely wouldn't pass. People often look at segregation in the US South as a political issue, but it was economic issue as well. How could the US preach free trade, when it didn't have free trade in its own country. Segregation was a internal non-tariff barrier. In the first election after the end of the Cold War in 1992, Ross Perot' based most of independent run for the Presidency on opposition to NAFTA. He won 19% of the vote. Like Ross Perot before him, Donald Trump is not the exception in how America has handled tariffs since the founding of the Republic, but more the norm.
The embrace of free trade by the business and political elite can be attributed to two events. After the end of Bretton Woods in 1971, a strong vested interest in the US in the form of multinationals and Wall Street emerged advocating for removal of tariffs and more importantly the removal of restrictions on free flow of capital, whether direct foreign investment in portfolio investment. However, the political class embrace of free trade and capital only really took off after the collapse of the Soviet Union propelled by Cold War triumphalism.
As mentioned by the article, the US is reverting back to a pre-WTO relations with China. As Robert Lighthizer said in speech in 2000
I guess my prescription, really, is to move back to more of a negotiating kind of a settlement. Return to WTO and what it really was meant to be. Something where you have somebody make a decision but have it not be binding.
The US is using financial and legal instruments developed during the Cold War like its extradition treaties (with Canada and Europe), and Section 301. Here is a very good recent article about enforcement commitment that China will make.‘Painful’ enforcement ahead for China if trade war deal is reached with US insisting on unilateral terms
NOTE: It is very difficult to talk about US-China trade war without a basic knowledge of global economic history since 1914. What a lot of people do is politicize or subordinate the economic history to the political. Some commentators think US power was just handed to them after the Second World War, when the US was the only industrialized economy left standing. The dominant position of the US was temporary and in reality its like having 10 tonnes of Gold sitting in your house, it doesn't automatically translate to influence. The US from 1945-1989 was slowly and gradually build her influence in the non-Communist world. For example, US influence in Canada in the 1960s wasn't as strong as it is now. Only 50% of Canadian exports went to the US in 1960s vs 80% at the present moment.

BASIS OF THE US TRADE DISCUSSION WITH CHINA

According to preliminary agreement between China and the US based on unnamed sources in the Wall Street Journal article US, China close in on Trade Deal. In this article it divides the deal in two sections. The first aspects have largely to do with deficits and is political.
As part of a deal, China is pledging to help level the playing field, including speeding up the timetable for removing foreign-ownership limitations on car ventures and reducing tariffs on imported vehicles to below the current auto tariff of 15%. Beijing would also step up purchases of U.S. goods—a tactic designed to appeal to President Trump, who campaigned on closing the bilateral trade deficit with China. One of the sweeteners would be an $18 billion natural-gas purchase from Cheniere Energy Inc., people familiar with the transaction said.
The second part will involve the following.
  1. Commitment Regarding Industrial Policy
  2. Provisions to protect IP
  3. Mechanism which complaints by US companies can be addressed
  4. Bilateral meetings adjudicate disputes. If talks don't produce agreement than US can raise tariffs unilaterally
This grouping of conditions is similar to the points filled under the 301 investigation which serve the basis for initiating the tariffs. I have been reading some sources that say this discussion on this second group of broader issues could only be finalized later
The official justifications for placing the tariffs on Chinese goods is found under the March 2018 investigation submitted by the office of the President to Congress titled FINDINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION INTO CHINA’S ACTS, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND INNOVATION UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974. From this investigation the United States Trade Representative (USTR) place US Tariffs on Chinese goods as per Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. Here is a press release by the USTR listing the reasons for placing tariffs, and the key section from the press release. Specifically, the Section 301 investigation revealed:
In the bigger context of trade relations between US and China, China is not honoring its WTO commitments, and the USTR issued its yearly report to Congress in early February about the status of China compliance with its WTO commitments. The points that served as a basis for applying Section 301, also deviate from her commitments as Clinton's Trade Representative Charlene Barshefsky paving the way for a trade war. Barshefsky argues that China's back sliding was happening as early as 2006-07, and believes the trade war could have been avoided has those commitments been enforced by previous administrations.
I will provide a brief overview of WTO membership and China's process of getting into the WTO.
WTO members can be divided into two groups, first are countries that joined in 1995-97, and were members of GATT, than there are the second group that joined after 1997. China joined in 2001. There is an argument that when China joined in 2001, she faced more stringent conditions than other developing countries that joined before, because the vast majority of developing countries were members of GATT, and were admitted to the WTO based on that previous membership in GATT. Here is Brookings Institute article published in 2001 titled "Issues in China’s WTO Accession"
This question is all the more puzzling because the scope and depth of demands placed on entrants into the formal international trading system have increased substantially since the formal conclusion of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in 1994, which expanded the agenda considerably by covering many services, agriculture, intellectual property, and certain aspects of foreign direct investment. Since 1994, the international community has added agreements covering information technology, basic telecommunications services, and financial services. WTO membership now entails liberalization of a much broader range of domestic economic activity, including areas that traditionally have been regarded by most countries as among the most sensitive, than was required of countries entering the WTO’s predecessor organization the GATT.
The terms of China’s protocol of accession to the World Trade Organization reflect the developments just described and more. China’s market access commitments are much more far-reaching than those that governed the accession of countries only a decade ago. And, as a condition for membership, China was required to make protocol commitments that substantially exceed those made by any other member of the World Trade Organization, including those that have joined since 1995. The broader and deeper commitments China has made inevitably will entail substantial short-term economic costs.
What are the WTO commitments Barshefsky goes on about? When countries join the WTO, particularly those countries that weren't members of GATT and joined after 1997, they have to work toward fulfilling certain commitments. There are 4 key documents when countries make an accession to WTO membership, the working party report, the accession protocol paper, the goods schedule and service schedule.
In the working party report as part of the conclusion which specifies the commitment of each member country what they will do in areas that aren't compliant with WTO regulations on the date they joined. The problem there is no good enforcement mechanism for other members to force China to comply with these commitments. And WTO punishments are weak.
Here is the commitment paragraph for China
"The Working Party took note of the explanations and statements of China concerning its foreign trade regime, as reflected in this Report. The Working Party took note of the commitments given by China in relation to certain specific matters which are reproduced in paragraphs 18-19, 22-23, 35-36, 40, 42, 46-47, 49, 60, 62, 64, 68, 70, 73, 75, 78-79, 83-84, 86, 91-93, 96, 100-103, 107, 111, 115-117, 119-120, 122-123, 126-132, 136, 138, 140, 143, 145, 146, 148, 152, 154, 157, 162, 165, 167-168, 170-174, 177-178, 180, 182, 184-185, 187, 190-197, 199-200, 203-207, 210, 212-213, 215, 217, 222-223, 225, 227-228, 231-235, 238, 240-242, 252, 256, 259, 263, 265, 270, 275, 284, 286, 288, 291, 292, 296, 299, 302, 304-305, 307-310, 312-318, 320, 322, 331-334, 336, 339 and 341 of this Report and noted that these commitments are incorporated in paragraph 1.2 of the Draft Protocol. "
This is a tool by the WTO that list all the WTO commitment of each country in the working paper. In the goods and service schedule they have commitments for particular sectors. Here is the a press release by the WTO in September 2001, after successfully concluding talks for accession, and brief summary of key areas in which China hasn't fulfilled her commitments. Most of the commitments made by China were made to address its legacy as a non-market economy and involvement of state owned enterprises. In my opinion, I think the US government and investors grew increasingly frustrated with China, after 2007 not just because of China's back sliding, but relative to other countries who joined after 1997 like Vietnam, another non-market Leninist dictatorship. When comparing China's commitments to the WTO its best to compare her progress with those that joined after 1997, which were mostly ex-Soviet Republics.
NOTE: The Chinese media have for two decades compared any time the US has talked about China's currency manipulation or any other issue as a pretext for imposing tariffs on China to the Plaza Accords. I am very sure people will raise it here. My criticism of this view is fourfold. First, the US targeted not just Japan, but France, Britain and the UK as well. Secondly, the causes of the Japan lost decade were due largely to internal factors. Thirdly, Japan, UK, Britain and France in the 1980s, the Yuan isn't undervalued today. Lastly, in the USTR investigation, its China's practices that are the concern, not so much the trade deficit.

REASONS FOR TRUMPS UNILATERAL APPROACH

I feel that people shouldn't dismiss Trump's unilateral approach toward China for several reasons.
  1. The multilateral approach won't work in many issues such as the trade deficit, commercial espionage and intellectual property, because US and her allies have different interest with regard to these issues. Germany and Japan and trade surpluses with China, while the US runs a deficit. In order to reach a consensus means the West has to compromise among themselves, and the end result if the type of toothless resolutions you commonly find in ASEAN regarding the SCS. Does America want to "compromise" its interest to appease a politician like Justin Trudeau? Not to mention opposition from domestic interest. TPP was opposed by both Clinton and Trump during the election.
  2. You can't launch a geopolitical front against China using a newly formed trade block like the TPP. Some of the existing TPP members are in economic groups with China, like Malaysia and Australia.
  3. China has joined a multitude of international bodies, and at least in trade, these bodies haven't changed its behavior.
  4. Dealing with China, its a no win situation whether you use a tough multilateral / unilateral approach. If the US endorse a tough unilateral approach gives the impression that the US is acting like the British during the Opium War. If you take a concerted Western approach you are accused of acting like the 8 Powers Alliance in 1900.
  5. Trump was elected to deal with China which he and his supporters believe was responsible for the loss of millions manufacturing jobs when China joined the WTO in 2001. It is estimate the US lost 6 Million jobs, about 1/4 of US manufacturing Jobs. This has been subsequently advanced by some economists. The ball got rolling when Bill Clinton decided to grant China Most Favored Nation status in 1999, just a decade after Tiananmen.
  6. China hasn't dealt with issues like IP protection, market access, subsidies to state own companies and state funded industrial spying.
To his credit, Trump has said his aim was not to overthrow authoritarian governments, and that even applies to the likes of Iran. The Arab spring scared Russia and China, because the US for a brief moment placed the spread of democracy over its security interest.

UNDERSTANDING HOW THE US MAKES DECISIONS REGARDING CHINA

At this moment, China or the trade war isn't an area of great concern for the American public, among international issues it ranks lower than international terrorism, North Korea and Iran's nuclear program.
According to the survey, 39 percent of the country views China’s growing power as a “critical threat” to Americans. That ranked it only eighth among 12 potential threats listed and placed China well behind the perceived threats from international terrorism (66 percent), North Korea’s nuclear program (59 percent) and Iran’s nuclear program (52 percent). It’s also considerably lower than when the same question was asked during the 1990s, when more than half of those polled listed China as a critical threat. That broadly tracks with a recent poll from the Pew Research Center that found concern about U.S.-China economic issues had decreased since 2012.
In looking at how US conducts relations foreign policy with China, we should look at it from the three areas of most concern - economic, national security and ideology. Each sphere has their interest groups, and sometimes groups can occupy two spheres at once. Security experts are concerned with some aspects of China's economic actions like IP theft and industrial policy (China 2025), because they are related to security. In these sphere there are your hawks and dove. And each sphere is dominated by certain interest groups. That is why US policy toward China can often appear contradictory. You have Trump want to reduce the trade deficit, but security experts advocating for restrictions on dual use technology who are buttressed by people who want export restrictions on China, as a way of getting market access.
Right now the economic concerns are most dominant, and the hawks seem to dominate. The economic hawks traditionally have been domestic manufacturing companies and economic nationalist. In reality the hawks aren't dominant, but the groups like US Companies with large investment in China and Wall Street are no longer defending China, and some have turned hawkish against China. These US companies are the main conduit in which China's lobby Congress, since China only spends 50% of what Taiwan spends lobbying Congress.
THE ANGLO SAXON WORLD AND CHINA
I don't think many Chinese even those that speak English, have a good understanding Anglo-Saxon society mindset. Anglo Saxons countries, whether US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland are commerce driven society governed by sanctity of contracts. The English great philosophical contributions to Western philosophy have primarily to do with economics and politics like Adam Smith, John Locke, David Hume and Thomas Hobbes. This contrast with the French and Germans. Politics in the UK and to a lesser extent the US, is centered around economics, while in Mainland Europe its religion. When the Americans revolted against the British Empire in 1776, the initial source of the grievances were taxes.
Outside of East Asia, the rest of the World's relationship with China was largely commercial, and for United States, being an Anglosaxon country, even more so. In Southeast Asia, Chinese aren't known for high culture, but for trade and commerce. Outside Vietnam, most of Chinese loans words in Southeast Asian languages involve either food or money. The influence is akin to Yiddish in English.
Some people point to the Mao and Nixon meeting as great strategic breakthrough and symbol of what great power politics should look like. The reality is that the Mao-Nixon meeting was an anomaly in the long history of relations with China and the West. Much of China-Western relations over the last 500 years was conducted by multitudes of nameless Chinese and Western traders. The period from 1949-1979 was the only period were strategic concerns triumphed trade, because China had little to offer except instability and revolution. Even in this period, China's attempt to spread revolution in Southeast Asia was a threat to Western investments and corporate interest in the region. During the nadir of both the Qing Dynasty and Republican period, China was still engaged in its traditional commercial role. Throughout much of history of their relations with China, the goals of Britain and the United States were primarily economic,
IMAGINE JUST 10% OF CHINA BOUGHT MY PRODUCT
From the beginning, the allure of China to Western businesses and traders has been its sheer size I. One of the points that the USTR mentions is lack of market access for US companies operating in China, while Chinese companies face much less restrictions operating in the US.
This is supported by remarks by Henry Paulson and Charlene Barshefsky. As Paulson remarked
Trade with China has hurt some American workers. And they have expressed their grievances at the ballot box.
So while many attribute this shift to the Trump Administration, I do not. What we are now seeing will likely endure for some time within the American policy establishment. China is viewed—by a growing consensus—not just as a strategic challenge to the United States but as a country whose rise has come at America’s expense. In this environment, it would be helpful if the US-China relationship had more advocates. That it does not reflects another failure:
In large part because China has been slow to open its economy since it joined the WTO, the American business community has turned from advocate to skeptic and even opponent of past US policies toward China. American business doesn’t want a tariff war but it does want a more aggressive approach from our government. How can it be that those who know China best, work there, do business there, make money there, and have advocated for productive relations in the past, are among those now arguing for more confrontation? The answer lies in the story of stalled competition policy, and the slow pace of opening, over nearly two decades. This has discouraged and fragmented the American business community. And it has reinforced the negative attitudinal shift among our political and expert classes. In short, even though many American businesses continue to prosper in China, a growing number of firms have given up hope that the playing field will ever be level. Some have accepted the Faustian bargain of maximizing today’s earnings per share while operating under restrictions that jeopardize their future competitiveness. But that doesn’t mean they’re happy about it. Nor does it mean they aren’t acutely aware of the risks — or thinking harder than ever before about how to diversify their risks away from, and beyond, China.
What is interesting about Paulson's speech is he spend only one sentence about displaced US workers, and a whole paragraph about US business operating in China. While Kissinger writes books about China, how much does he contribute to both Democrats and the Republicans during the election cycle? China is increasingly makING it more difficult for US companies operating and those exporting products to China.

CONTINUED

submitted by weilim to IntlScholars [link] [comments]

Market Making Strategy

Market Making Strategy

https://preview.redd.it/u1jwr3pjndi31.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=e51f144990f475c4435e249f10f5582eab3765c1
The needs of Market Making Strategies
According to a research in Nebraska, Over the past few years, the rapid growth and success of automated techniques for e-commerce have resulted in their wide adoption in various domains beyond traditional B2B and B2C commodity markets.
As the role of the market-makers grows, the need for better understanding of the impact of the market-makers in the market increases as well.
Finally, the reinforcement learning strategy fulfills its tasks of both controlling the spread and maximizing utility.
History of market making
The automation of a market-makers’s functions was suggested more than three decades ago. Previously, several theoretical approaches, albeit with certainsimplifying assumptions, have been proposed to understand the effects of market makers on financial markets.
Designing a strategy based on :
  • Traders behavior
  • market-makers behavior
As a result, the rolls of a market makers are :
  1. Sets bid and offer prices within a certain currency pair
  2. Commits to accepting deals at these prices within certain constraints
  3. Takes the resulting exposure on to their own book (at least initially)
  4. Hosting, deployment, and maintenance
  5. Integrations with portfolio and execution management systems
  6. Access to historical order book data
Above all, this white paper mentioned different strategies about market making :
  • Basic arbitrage strategies: singe trading pair on two exchanges
  • Multiple exchange strategy: increase likelihood of identifying arbitrage opportunities by monitoring multiple exchanges (more than two)
  • Multiple trading pair strategies / triangular arbitrage: a common strategyin foreign exchange markets, using more than a single trading pair for capturingarbitrage. Increased complexity and additional trading pairs increase the likelihoodof the occurrence of a pricing dislocation.
  • Cross-Exchange Market Making: Cross-exchange market making combines elements from both arbitrage trading and basicmarket making in order to profit from differences in liquidity between trading pairs fromtwo (or more) different exchanges. In cross-exchange market making, a market maker trades on or two different exchanges and uses the best available bid and asks.
  • Re balancing :When employing a cross-exchange market making strategy, it is increasingly likely withthe passage of time that an imbalance in the direction of trading flows will accumulate.
Conclusion
This is the first step in performing a comparison of multiple market-maker strategies. In the future, we wish to explore different extensions of this work. First of all, we would like to propose and perform comparisons of other market-maker strategies such as using a minimax regret algorithm for price adjustments by the market-maker. Secondly, we would like to study the performance of the market makers with a more complex behavior, such as dynamically switching strategies based on past performance. This way, a better balance of maintaining marketquality and maximizing market-maker utilities may be obtained. And lastly, we would like to add various behavioral attributes to the market-maker model such as different risk attributes and making untruthful price revelations through bluffing for improving profits.
http://blog.quantvan.com/?p=720
submitted by Quantvan to u/Quantvan [link] [comments]

USI Tech

I wrote this to a friend who attempted to recruit me into USI Tech.
heres my opinion
USI Tech has a lot of similarities with very problematic business models.
its ownership has problematic connections; it operates a multilevel marketing model that relies on the recruitment of new investors; i havent seen convincing proof that their software truly works the way they say it works.
ive found a lot of cloak and dagger having done a couple weeks of research on the company and my conclusion is that
for me personally there are too may red flags to invest. ive consumed a lot of material on the subject of their legitimacy from both sides of the argument. this is a complex question and it has a complex answer.
the objective truth of whether or not the company is a scam will be regarded as a matter of opinion until history reveals itself; as of right now you believe they are an honest enterprise, and i disagree. that is totally fine, we are both friends and we respect eachothers opinions and we want the best for one another; either of us could be wrong and it won't affect our friendship.
for me, the decision to forego the investment came from these red flags:
1.) Who. its hard to get an official document of exactly who owns the company however these are a few names that come up as people who have either seemed to own it or have at one point promoted it, all of which cast shade over themselves: Mike Kiefer, Ralf Gold, Joao Severino, Charles Scoville.
USI Tech is registered in Dubai and while that is not problematic on its own, there are devastating amounts of internet ponzis registered or operating out of Dubai, specifically foreign exchange trading scams.
2.) How. multilevel marketing. i despise MLM, i believe it is a predatory recruitment method that exploits people's hope and greed. while pyramid schemes can make money, very very very very very often the actual money making mechanism is the recruitment of new members and their subsequent purchase investments. even with a really shitty product you can make this go far so long as the hype is strong enough to feed recruitment.
my family was ruined when i was ten after my parents claimed bankrupcy over a zealous series of investments in Melaluca, an organic lotions MLM. this will always affect my bias.
3.) What. USI Tech's bitcoin product, what is it? do they offer a crypto trading software that works like their forex robot? as far as i can tell, there is no direct evidence of the actual trades that their software allegedyly engages in. my bottom line is here i can't come up with any evidence of a tangible product that truly does what they say it does which is problematic because they are offering a ROI which is apparently based on this robot's performance. moreover, if USI Tech is attempting some clever loophole trickery to avoid having registered with the SEC for selling securities, i have no idea what it is and that is alarming.
finally, 4.) Why. ponzi. if you do not know how a ponzi scheme works on a technical level, learn it, it is very simple. a multilevel marketing company out of Dubai that offers a cloaked software product raises supreme concern for me. their shelflife looks to have been extended by having added an anonymous and unregulated currency into the mix.
i don't doubt that at some level they are trying to make honest money, maybe that is what their mining operation is about. if they start offering cloud mining, that will be another red flag.
money can be made in a ponzi, i just believe its dishonest money. the operative is to discontinue reinvestment at a safe time. i cant put my btc in it because i believe it will contribute to the propagation of the business, which i believe to be malevolent.
__
for me, the magic is in bitcoin. not a robot that trades bitcoin. not a robot that trades in fiat markets.
i dont even speculate in arbitrage because the magic isnt even in the investment opportunity.
if what they say is true, and there is a robot that can consistently pull value out of crypto markets, then that is an innovative and lucrative achievement, but i don't buy it. if they use a robot to pull value out of forex, then my investment is directly participating in that system of currency that i don't trust.
you're a good dude, and obviously i have no hard feelings about your involvement, you will make money in it even which is great. like i said you can still make money in it and of course its tempting to invest so i might even buy a pack depending on how greedy i get, but my opinion isn't likely to change about the nature of USI Tech until i learn more.
submitted by beartowitness to Scams [link] [comments]

On AIR: Hacken Answers the Questions in Regards to Marketing Activities

On AIR: Hacken Answers the Questions in Regards to Marketing Activities
As a part of the answers to the Q&A launched by Hacken, we are delighted to share our vision on Marketing Activities.
Marketing, as well as product development, is one of the Key activities. Based on the questions we received from the Community we created 3 Marketing Blocks: Community Building, Market making, and Customer Management. Below we are telling about each of them in details.

COMMUNITY BUILDING

KEY PRINCIPLES:
The main principles come from Hacken’s mission - to make the crypto space mature, secure, and transparent. Undoubtedly, to achieve it, we need the assistance of the crowd, who are the market participants.
As a result, our fundamental principles are grounded in the incentives for people to support our mission:
1) Influence
Each HKN token holder will be able to participate in the voting process to select the future development directions of the company. The voting power will be determined by the percentage of tokens held by a person.
2) Fair Rewarding
Each HKN token holder will be justly rewarded for his/her contribution to the functionality of our blockchain network (being nodes and master nodes) and to the development of our business (paying active & loyal community members tokens, merch, tickets, etc.).
3) Facilitation
Hacken will guide and support community members who are willing to contribute to Hacken’s mission either with us or independently. The support includes the following areas: business development, marketing, cybersecurity, R&D and so forth.
F.e. you can conduct an investigation similar to CER’s research on BitForex. Our team will review the work and give recommendations regarding the ways to improve it if needed. Then, Hacken will deliver the results to the community to ensure the highest coverage of the investigation.
Therefore, our community structure and principles are designed to achieve visibility, inclusiveness, transparency, flexibility, and efficiency. We believe that this approach will significantly foster the achievement of Hacken’s mission and the overall progress within the industry:
The more we contribute, the more we have. Together, we will make a difference!
SMART OBJECTIVES:
S - Specific
Develop a worldwide network of local community members — people who will do their best to help Hacken reach the common goal and achieve marketing and business development success. The key factor is fostering the ideology of “family,” “common goal”, and “mutual benefit.”Credo: The more each of us contributes, the more we have! This thinking concerns a secure crypto space, fair exchanges, lack of scams, higher demand for Hacken, and cybersecurity services.
M - Measurable
The goal will be evaluated by local community branches in 5 locations: the US, Japan, Korea, Europe, Turkey. Active community members in each region will also assist with the implementation: short-term goal — 500, middle — 1000, aggressive — 1500.
A - Achievable
We already have loyal supporters who voluntary promote Hacken and find new dev opportunities for the company.We believe that if we create a more comprehensive management structure (working process and processing of inbound requests), content marketing (adaptation and distribution of content) and motivation system (encouragement according to levels), we will succeed in community management and marketing.
R - Relevant
The cooperation between Hacken and well-established blockchain companies like Vechain, SONM, SingularityX etc. has proved that the presence of active and involved community members positively affects marketing performance, capitalization of a coin, trading volume, and volatility.
T - Time
The deadline for the implementation of the project — 3 months.
CURRENT COMMUNITY DESIGN
As for now, we have a next outline describing the Community structure and processes.
Community Organizational Structure
Content Outbound Distribution
Inbound Request Operating

MARKET MAKING

SHORT TERMS VOLUME/PRICE INCREASING
Hacken gained significant experience and knowledge about exchanges and exchange rate fluctuations while conducting marketing activities.
Thus, we concluded that:
Direct stimulation of the bidding and courses (an activity illegal in traditional fond markets) doesn’t guarantee a long-term effect and, moreover, can be harmful;
The number of active exchange members and listing standards is the main criteria for a token that plans to be listed;
Expanding community support via social media accounts of an exchange, accounts of partners or other media communities brings the organic growth of trades and prices;
Inter-exchange and inter-arbitrage can bring a healthy and organic pump required shortly after the start of trading.
Logical consequences:
The continuous community growth and effective communication with users are the essential parameters for Hacken and key performance metrics on our way to volume/price increase.
Listing on a new exchange. Currently, we are about to start the Token Protocol Migration and listing on new exchanges, which may have a significant marketing effect, especially for selling HKN tokens before and after Protocol Migration.
The increase of client base, continuous community growth and effective communication with the HKN community members are the essential parameters for Hacken and key performance metrics on our way to volume/price increase.
HKN EXCHANGER OPERATING
At the end of the spring, we realized that it was difficult for our clients to purchase the token because they had to register on a different exchange to buy HKNs.
The most efficient way to resolve this issue was to create an automatic exchanger.
Hacken Exchanger, a tool that allows one-way transactions to buy HKNs, was developed by our partners Paytomat to facilitate the process of buying HKN tokens for our clients from hub.hacken.io and hackenproof.com. One can find Hacken Exchanger on top of the main tab of our website - https://hacken.io/
Subsequently, we plan to upgrade it: tokens will be automatically bought from an exchange in order to replenish its reserve.
CER MONETIZATION STRATEGIES
Currently, CER is free of charge, but some of the most useful blocks will be available under paid subscription after October 1, 2018.
We plan to offer three different ways to get access to the platform:
  • Paid subscription for individual investors and enterprises
  • Free availability to those holding a sufficiently high amount of HKNs
  • Including a crypto exchange to CER scoring boards

CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT

EXISTING CUSTOMERS AND CONCLUSIONS
Our customers are blockchain and IT companies.
We provide a full range of cybersecurity services: anti-phishing protection, smart contract audit, and penetration testing. Most of our clients stay with us: once they order a service from Hacken, they appreciate the quality of our work and purchase other services.Furthermore, we continuously expand and improve the services we offer to meet the growing demand. For example, we've just released an anti-phishing bot, which will help our customers automatically identify and remove fake accounts in Telegram groups.Additionally, we expect to expand our client base by establishing close ties with existing clients and encouraging them to recommend our services to other companies.
Cybersecurity Service Business Modeling
CYBERSECURITY MARKET
The cybersecurity market will grow by 12-15 percent until 2021.
According to the “Deltek’s Federal Information Security Market Report,” the demand for cybersecurity services by the US federal government will increase up to $11 billion by 2020. More and more federal agencies increase the cybersecurity spending share of their budgets; Deltek expects that by 2020 the average share of cybersecurity spending within an IT budget will exceed 10 percent.
WHY HKN?
We will do our best to bring these budgets to HKN Capitalization.
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Forex Tips - 4 Steps to Forex Hedging

Although there forex arbitrage is a more complex Forex Millennium Review approach other that the other strategies and techniques, still it is one way of ensuring that this can become a possibility for you to indulge and make sure that you have the necessary skills in order to be able to accommodate this kind of approach to some people. In this way also it's making it the best option for traders to go ahead and making use of this as a part of your strategy in trading will in the end lead you to some favorable results. This also would require and make way for you to be able to develop a good thing in making sure that what you have is the most appropriate approach to use in the forex market. With a lot of strategies that will be used in profiting from the forex market on e thing you need to know and take into consideration is on how this is going to be able to provide you with the things that you need to make sure that you can earn profits from this type of approach.

It's no doubt that with a lot of strategies and ways on how to be able to learn from forex arbitrage, it can allow one of us to explore some other options and arrive at a certain conclusion that with these different ways we can have the most important ways in developing a profitable strategy known as forex arbitrage.The Forex Market involves a trading system that involves all the currencies around the world. There is constant buying and selling of the currencies which will also depend on situations that are happening right in that very country as well. With the Forex market there is a constant change in the development and improvement of the currency being traded depending on real time events. This is a market which accommodates billions and even trillions of dollars each day making this one the largest financial market around the globe. Dealing with currencies in trading market also requires you to have a currency trading course to provide you with a clear description of the market that you are trading in.

Traders usually are just waiting for the values of the currencies to go along and in favor to them. This can also become profitable in the traders part as there are a lot of things that would need to become quite comfortable with trading with the currencies of the different countries around the world. One has to ensure that before venturing into the currency trading business. You would need to be familiar and would need also to have the knowledge on how the currencies world and what are the different techniques that you can use in order to be able to get knowledge through the currency trading course.The currency trading course has a good way in determining which would have a better way in checking on the different signals also that would be used in order for you to avoid the common mistakes in trading that would cost you much because of the lack of knowledge on this things. It is but important to see to it that there are different strategies that would need to be implemented in any way that it would be able to provide a good understanding on the currency trading course and how it will be able to affect your career in the currency trading.

Some would find it as a risky business to venture on but careful looking into the details, all you need to do us to have the knowledge and the strategies to be able to know what are the different things needed for this type of business. If you have already taken the currency trading course you will be able to know then how important it is to have this as a guide in making sure that you will be able to get by with the different risks and most of all to ensure the profitability that you have for this particular business. Making sure that this happens is a good way in arriving at a certain point where you can earn profits from this.Forex signal software enables every trader to have a simple access to current events and situations of forex trade in the market. It updates them whether it is the right time for them to place a trade or if it is not. It also gives them information with a real time data whenever and wherever they are on the world. It gives an easy right of entry to the latest forex market world.

https://asrightasrain.co/forex-millennium-review/
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#liqnet

LIQNET A CRYPTOCURRENCY EXCHANGE WITH THE UNIQUE LIQUIDITY POOLING TECHNOLOGY
LIQNET SPECIFICS
THE LEN MECHANISM (LIQUIDITY EXCHANGE NETWORK) LEN (Liquidity Exchange Network) is what makes our exchange unique. This mechanism allows collecting and aggregating buy/sell orders through APIs of 1,2...n exchanges located anywhere in the world and forming a unified order book.LIQNET is a cryptocurrency exchange that uses a unique liquidity gathering mechanism. Find out how it works today in our review.What Is LIQNET?
LIQNET, found online at LIQNET.com, gathers liquidity from other exchanges and allows traders to access this liquidity through a single dashboard. You can take advantage of arbitrage opportunities between exchanges. Or, you can simply use LIQNET to access more liquidity.
The system revolves around the united limit order book, or LOB. You access this order book through the professional LIQNET interface. LIQNET was announced on April 24, 2018. The company is expecting to launch a token sale in May or June 2018.
How Does LIQNET Work?
LIQNET revolves around its limit order book, or LOB, and its LEN mechanism. The Liquidity Exchange Network, or LEN, mechanism prevents liquidity fragmentation by pooling bids and orders from different exchanges. Instead of accessing liquidity from a single cryptocurrency exchange, you can access liquidity from multiple exchanges using the same professional LIQNET dashboard. The main benefit of this higher liquidity is that traders can enjoy a lower bid/ask spread. LEN collects and pools orders from exchange customers like you. Then, it connects those orders with orders from other platforms, creating a single depth of market panel. Orders are collected and then made available for trading to all LIQNET exchange customers.
Using the public APIs of cryptocurrency exchanges, LEN polls them for purchase and sale bids, forming a single depth of market panel for its customers and allowing traders to find the best prices at minimal spread.
You can access LIQNET through your desktop browser or a mobile app.
LIQNET Features & Benefits
LIQNET emphasizes all of the following features and benefits:
No Slippage: High liquidity allows users to reduce or fully eliminate the costs of slippage. Expenses Reduction: The higher the market liquidity is, the smaller the bid/ask spread will be, which thereby lowers the cost of trading.
Trust: LIQNET’s liquidity “reflects the presence of a mass of people whose actions are much easier to predict than the actions of a single person,” explains the official website, which means that a single entity can’t dominate the trading market. Decentralization: LIQNET claims to be built on a decentralized system because their physical hardware is located in two different data centers, including centers in France and Canada. This isn’t what we typically mean by “decentralization”, although we understand what LIQNET is getting at.
Security: LIQNET holds customers’ funds in multiple locations, including hot wallets, multi-signature wallets, and cryptocurrency exchanges. This reduces the risk of theft. Multiple Trading Options: LIQNET supports direct trading from the financial chart and scalping trades (including post limit and stop orders right from the order book). Multiple Order Types: LIQNET supports stop order trades, stop limit trades, TP & SL trades, trailing stop trades, Iceberg, IFD, OCO, IFDOCO, valid till day/time trades, AON, IOC, and FOK trades.
Financial Charts: LIQNET provides a suite of analysis tools. Users can also customize their dashboard with 100+ different trading indicators. Multiple Currency Pairs: Right now, LIQNET lists just four cryptocurrency pairs, including LTC/BTC, ETH/BTC, BCH/BTC, and PPC/BTC. However, they allow users to deposit more currencies, including bitcoin, Litecoin, USD, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, DASH, and Peercoin (PPC).
LIQNET Fees A number of cryptocurrency exchanges aggregate liquidity from across different exchanges. So what makes LIQNET special? What kind of fees can you expect to pay? Here are some of the notable fees as listed on the LIQNET fees page: Trading Fees: 0.2% taker fee, 0.1% maker fee Deposit Fees: 0 (0% deposit fees on all deposit options, including bitcoin, Litecoin, USD, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, DASH, and Peercoin). Withdrawal Fees: 0.0001 BTC, 0.01 LTC, 0.01 USD, 0.01 ETH, 0.01 BCH, 0.01 DASH, and 0.01 PPC.
The LIQNET ICO LIQNET is expecting to launch a crowdsale in May / June 2018. That crowdsale will consist of a closed pre-sale and an open ICO. Further details of the token sale have not yet been announced. LIQNET has partnered with Como Capital to launch their ICO. It’s unclear how LIQNET tokens will work. However, tokens launched by other cryptocurrency exchanges typically provide a discount on trading fees. You might only pay 0.1% or 0.5% trading fees when paying with LIQNET’s tokens, for example.Who’s Behind LIQNET? LIQNET was created by a team of finance, law, and technology professionals with a proven track record in traditional investments and forex trading.
Key members of the team include Roman Shirokov (CEO), Evgeny Tarasenko (CTO), and Vyacheslav Kasatkin.
LIQNET was incorporated in 2015. The company is registered to an address in Singapore (10 Maxwell Road, Singapore).
LIQNET Conclusion LIQNET is a cryptocurrency exchange that aggregates liquidity from a number of different exchanges across the internet. The goal is to reduce the bid/ask spread while offering users the highest liquidity across multiple order types and markets. Right now, LIQNET is in the early stages of launch. The exchange is not yet available online, although a desktop and mobile app are preparing to launch in the near future.
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General info and list of exchanges for Pinnacle Brilliance

Brilliance is a Stellar based token that will be used within Pinnacle, a full featured investment app, that will connect all other major exchanges and brokerages into a single access point for the first time in history.
About Pinnacle Brilliance Pinnacle is the trading and investment platform that will become your primary point of access to the growing world of crypto, CFD, stocks, futures, and options investment. Pinnacle will be a full featured investment multiplex with truly automated trading features for beginners, and the very best trading tools for professionals. This platform will revolutionize trading cryptocurrency and world markets.
Pinnacle services include:
Access to every major trading exchange and ability to execute all trading functions within the platform (PC, Mac, Android and iOS) Fully automated arbitrage trading within and between all exchanges Copy/follow professional traders as they place trades across multiple platforms simultaneously (with multi-month performance based qualification system and automated commissions) YamaCat Trading Course For Beginners to learn all skills necessary to be a competent trader in real time Extensive charting app for all exchanges with advanced AI trade pattern recognition/identification, automated trade execution, and trade setup alerts for professionals Pinnacle proprietary trading strategy signals (80%+ accuracy) with programmable execution for any exchange and any market Encrypted group messaging and monetized communications feature for professionals to offer trade recommendation subscriptions (trading strategies/tips, group based training, etc.) Specialized Pinnacle automated trading systems geared toward 1:1 trading of crypto and stocks with exceptionally low risk and consistently high rates of return Portfolio Investment Management Suite to track your holdings and help you build them for the short and long term Traders Market for users to buy and sell their own tools, indicators, bots, subscriptions, and private group memberships We think different people excel in different trading environments. If a person is not suited to the stress/pressure and fast decision making in forex, then 1:1 trading would be perfect. Especially for people who don't have a lot of time to trade.
Every single person can become a successful trader as long as they choose the trading style that fits their strengths and weaknesses.
Kucoin
Binance
Bit-Z
Bibox
Linkcoin
Qryptos
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Cryptocurrency Trading Simplified with Money Trade Coin Group

The Money Trade Coin Group has initiated a training course program for cryptocurrency trading. Money Trade Coin will provide physical courses in countries such as UAE, Thailand, and Switzerland from May 15th Onwards. The courses will be of three days span long in each country and will teach cryptocurrency users more than just crypto trading but also divulge into concepts such as futures and derivatives in the FOREX market.
Join the Trading Course No matter whether you are an amateur, an accomplished crypto trader, or someone willing to learn new skills in cryptocurrency, this physical course will benefit you greatly as it is created to expand knowledge on the subject. Using this training course crypto holders will be able to invest wisely in a very competitive platform in order to make profits and minimize any risks.
What You Will Learn With the Crypto Training Course • How cryptocurrencies work and how to trade them • Profits and loss with cryptocurrencies • Tactics for effective cryptocurrency trading • An extensive tour of the market • What are Bitcoin and altcoins • Which coins you should buy and sell • How to store your coins • All about trading on the platform • Crypto exchanges and which ones you should use • Trading concepts and tools • Maximizing profit and risk management • What are the exact entry points, targets, and stop loss points • What support and resistance are in trading • How much research to do before starting your trading
How do we stand out?
With Money trade Coin Group you have ensured the best crypto training through our program and it is designed to cover all important aspects of cryptocurrency investment and trading on the platform. Our trainers and experienced traders have been involved in crypto trading for many years and hold impressive qualifications. Your progress throughout the course will be monitored and feedback will tell you where your strengths and weaknesses lie.
You will not only know how to trade but also understand the concepts behind crypto trading, the entire market and exchange systems. You will be able to trust your own decisions and strategies instead of relying on news pages or forums for your information which may be outdated or incorrect. Learning the ropes can help in setting fixed targets for your trade, buying and selling, stop loss and more.
Additionally, our course features futures and derivatives on the Foreign Exchange platform apart from MT4 software. By learning about the types of contracts you can buy and sell into, arbitrage, and hedging, you can minimize any risks you may come across trading in foreign currencies.
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Arbitrage Forex Software - YouTube Best arbitrage software BumbleBee FX  Profit 1432 % Forex Arbitrage System - Dolphin Trader - The Facts - YouTube

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Arbitrage Forex Software - YouTube

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